• Unit One Set One
    1. admonish (verb) to caution or advise against something; to scold mildly; to remind of a duty
    The librarian had to admonish the noisy students several times before they finally settled down.
    synonyms: warn, call on the carpet
    antonyms: praise, pat on the back
    2. breach (noun) an opening, gap, rupture, rift; a violation or infraction; (verb) to create an opening, break through
    Because of a serious breach of the rules, two players were ejected from the game. (noun)
    Our troops were unable to breach the enemy's lines during the battle. (verb) 
    antonyms: close, seal
    3. brigand (noun) a bandit, robber, outlaw, highwayman
    Ancient caravans passing through desolate areas were sometimes attacked by brigands.
    4. circumspect (adjective) careful, cautious
    It is important for a diplomat to behave in a manner that is both discreet and circumspect.
    synonyms: wary, prudent, guarded 
    antonyms: incautious, rash, reckless, heedless
    5. commandeer (verb) to seize for military or official use
    Under certain circumstances the U.S. government has the right to commandeer private property.
    synonyms: take over, requisition, expropriate
    6. cumbersome (adjective) clumsy, hard to handle; slow-moving
    The bus was filled to capacity with holiday shoppers carrying large and cumbersome packages.
    synonyms: unwieldy, ponderous
    antonyms: manageable, easy to handle
    7. deadlock (noun) a standstill resulting from the opposition of two equal forces or factions; (verb) to bring to such a standstill
    After fifteen innings, the score remained a frustrating 3-to-3 deadlock. (noun)
    The refusal of labor and management to modify their demands deadlocked the contract negotiations. (verb)
    synonyms: (noun) standoff, stalemate, impasse
    antonyms: (noun) agreement, accord, breakthrough
    8. debris (noun) scattered fragments, wreckage
    After the storm, the beach was littered with driftwood and other debris.
    synonyms: rubble, detritus, flotsam and jetsam
    9. diffuse (verb) to spread or scatter freely or widely; (adjective) wordy, long-winded, or unfocused; scattered or widely spread
     The scent of lilacs slowly diffused through the open window. (verb)
    The speech was so long and diffused that most members of the audience were thoroughly confused by it. 
    synonyms: (verb) disperse; (adjective) rambling, verbose, prolix
    antonyms: (verb) concentrate; (adjective) brief, concise, succinct
    10. dilemma (noun) a difficult or perplexing situation
    During the crisis the President found himself caught in a painful dilemma.
    synonyms: predicament, quandary, pickle, bind
    antonyms: cinch 
    Unit One Set Two 
    1. efface (verb) to wipe out; to keep oneself from being noticed
    Time had effaced almost all signs of the struggle that took place on the famous battlefield.
    synonyms: blot out, erase, obliterate, expunge
    2. muddle (verb) to spread or scatter freely or widely; (adjective) wordy, long-winded, or unfocused; scattered or widely spread
     The scent of lilacs slowly diffused through the open window. (verb)
    The speech was so long and diffused that most members of the audience were thoroughly confused by it. 
    synonyms: (verb) disperse; (adjective) rambling, verbose, prolix
    antonyms: (verb) concentrate; (adjective) brief, concise, succinct
    3. opinionated (adjective) stubborn and often unreasonable in holding to one's own ideas, having a closed mind
    My boss is not too opinionated to listen to a reasonable proposal.
    synonyms: obstinate, pigheaded, inflexible
    antonyms: open-minded, reasonable 
    4. perennial (adjective) lasting for a long time, persistent; (noun) a plant that lives for many years
     Pizza is a perennial favorite of young and old alike in the United States. (adjective)
    A garden of perennials is relatively easy to maintain. (noun)
    synonyms: (adjective) enduring, recurring
    antonyms: (adjective) brief, short-lived, fleeting, ephemeral
    5. predispose (verb) to incline to beforehand
    My genetic makeup seems to predispose me to colds and sore throats.
    synonyms: make susceptible to
    antonyms: immunize against, shield from
    6. relinquish (verb) to let go, give up
    Severe illness forced me to relinquish my role in the school play.
    synonyms: surrender, abandon
    antonyms: hold on, keep, retain, cling to
    7. salvage (verb) to save from fire or shipwreck (noun) property thus saved
     Fortunately, we were able to salvage a few things from the fire. (verb)
    Salvage from sunken ships can be of great value to archaeologists and historians. (noun)
    synonyms: (verb) rescue, recover, retrieve, reclaim
    antonyms: (verb) abandon, scrap, junk
    8. spasmodic (adjective) sudden and violent but brief; fitful; intermittent
    Spasmodic flashes of lightening and booming thunderclaps were accompanied by torrential rain.
    synonyms: irregular, occasional
    antonyms: steady, continuous, chronic
    9. spurious (adjective) not genuine, not true, not valid
    Manufacturers who make spurious claims for their products may face fines or lawsuits.
    synonyms: false, counterfeit, fraudulent, bogus
    antonyms: genuine, authentic, bona fide, valid
    10. unbridled (adjective) uncontrolled, lacking in restraint
    Sometimes the unbridled enthusiasm of sports fans can get a little out of hand.
    synonyms: unrestrained, unchecked
    antonyms: restrained, held in check, muted
    Unit Two Set 1
    1. adjourn (verb) to stop proceedings temporarily; move to another place
    The judge adjourned the hearing until ten o'clock the following morning.
    synonyms: postpone, suspend, discontinue
    antonyms: open, call to order 
    2. alien (noun) a citizen of a foreign country; (adjective) foreign, strange
    Movies about aliens from outer space have been popular for decades. (noun)
    An alien species of plant or animal can upset the balance of an ecosystem. (adjective) 
    synonyms: exotic, unfamiliar (adjective)
    antonyms: native, endemic, familiar (adjective)
    3. comely (adjective) having a pleasing appearance
    The proud parents and their comely children pose4d for a family portrait.
    synonyms: good-looking, attractive, bonny
    antonyms: plain, homely, ugly, repulsive
    4. compensate (verb) to make up for; to repay for services
    The manufacturer was ordered to compensate customers injured by the defective product.
    synonyms: pay back, reimburse, recompense
    antonyms: fail to reward, stiff
    5. dissolute (adjective) loose in one's morals or behavior
    The mad Roman emperor Caligula led an extravagant and dissolute life.
    synonyms: dissipated, debauched, immoral, corrupt
    antonyms: virtuous, chaste, moral, seemly, proper
    6. erratic (adjective) not regular or consistent; different from what is ordinarily expected; undependable
    Students who have an erratic attendance record may find themselves disciplined by the principal.
    synonyms: irregular, inconsistent, unpredictable
    antonyms: steady, consistent, dependable
    7. expulsion (noun) the process of driving or forcing out
    The story of the expulsion of Adam and Eve from the Garden of Eden is told in Genesis.
    synonyms: ejection, ouster, eviction
    antonyms: admittance, admission
    8. feint (noun) a deliberately deceptive movement; a pretense; (verb) to make a deceptive movement; to make a pretense
    The chess master's opening feint gave her an immediate advantage. (noun)
    His uncanny ability to feint and counterpunch made the champ unbeatable. (adjective) 
    synonyms: trick, ruse, subterfuge, dodgem, bluff (noun)
    9. fodder (noun) food for horses or cattle; raw material for a designated purpose
    Every experience in life is fodder for a novelist's imagination.
    synonyms: feed, provender
    10. fortify (verb) to strengthen, build up
    The soldiers fortified the garrison against the expected attack.
    synonyms: reinforce, shore up
    antonyms: weaken, undermine, sap, impair
    Unit Two Set Two
    1. illegible (adjective)  difficult or impossible to read
    The effects of air pollution have rendered the inscriptions on many old gravestones illegible.
    synonyms: unreadable, indecipherable, scribbled
    antonyms: readable, decipherable, distinct, clear
    2. jeer (verb) to make fun of rudely or unkindly (noun) a rude remark of derision
    To jeer at someone with a disability is absolutely inexcusable. (verb)
    Umpires and referees quickly become immune to the jeers of angry fans. (noun) 
    synonyms: laugh at, mock, taunt (verb)
    antonyms: applause, plaudits, accolades (noun)
    3. lucrative (adjective) bringing in money; profitable
    Many people find that they can turn a favorite hobby into a highly lucrative business.
    synonyms: gainful, moneymaking
    antonyms: unprofitable, losing, in the red
    4. mediocre (adjective) average, ordinary, undistinguished
    The team's number-one draft pick turned out to be a rather mediocre player, not a star who could lead them to the championship.
    synonyms: run-of-the-mill
    antonyms: exceptional, outstanding, distinguished
    5. proliferate (verb) to reproduce, increase, or spread rapidly
    Because malignant cells proliferate, early detection of cancer is absolutely crucial to successful treatment.
    synonyms: multiply, mushroom, burgeon
    antonyms: decrease, diminish, dwindle, slack off
    6. subjugate (verb) to conquer by force, bring under complete control
    "We must act quickly," the general said, "in order to subjugate the rebel forces."
    synonyms: subdue, vanquish, master
    antonyms: be conquered, submit, surrender
    7. sully (verb) to soil, stain, tarnish, defile, besmirch
    The Watergate scandal sullied the image of politicians in the minds of many voters.
    synonyms: pollute, taint, smear
    antonyms: cleanse, purify, decontaminate
    8. tantalize (verb) to tease, torment by teasing
    When I am on a diet, the treats in bakery windows seem to have been put there to tantalize me.
    synonyms: tempt, lead on, make one's mouth water
    antonyms: satisfy, fulfill, gratify
    9. terse (adjective) brief and to the point
    The manuscript for my short story was returned to me with a terse letter  of rejection.
    synonyms: concise, succinct, crisp, short and sweet
    antonyms: verbose, wordy, diffuse, prolix
    10. unflinching (adjective) firm, showing no signs of fear, not drawing back
    Everyone admires the unflinching courage with which firefighters and other rescue workers carry out the dangerous jobs.
    synonyms: resolute, steadfast, unwavering
    antonyms: irresolute, wavering, vacillating 
    Unit Three Set 1
     1. abridge (verb) to make shorter
    Travel by air abridges the time needed to reach far-distant places.
    synonyms: shorten, condense, abbreviate
    antonyms: expand, enlarge, augment 
    2. adherent (noun) a follower, supporter
    The senator's loyal adherent campaigned long and hard for her reelection.
    synonyms: disciple
    antonyms: opposite, adversary, critic, detractor
    3. altercation (noun) an angry argument
    A noisy altercation in the next apartment kept me awake for hours. 
    synonyms: quarrel, dispute, squabble
    antonyms: agreement, accord
    4. cherubic (adjective) resembling an angel portrayed as a little child with a beautiful, round, or chubby face; sweet and innocent 
    How well those photographs of the month-old twins capture the cherubic expressions on their faces!
    synonyms: angelic, seraphic, beatific
    antonyms: impish, devilish, diabolic, fiendish 
    5. condone (verb) to pardon or overlook
    Our parents have always made it crystal clear to us that they do not condone rude behavior.
    synonyms: ignore, wink at, turn a blind eye to
    antonyms: censure, condemn, disapprove, deprecate 
    6. dissent (verb) to disagree
    Justices have an option to dissent from a ruling issued by a majority of the Supreme Court.
    synonyms: differ, dispute
    antonyms: agree, concur 
    7. eminent (adjective) famous, outstanding, distinguished, projecting
    A group of eminent scientists met to discuss long-term changes in Earth's climate.
    synonyms: illustrious, renowned
    antonyms: obscure, nameless, unsung, lowly, humble 
    8. exorcise (verb) to drive out by magic; to dispose of something troublesome, menacing, or oppressive
    We must do all we can to exorcise the evils of hatred and prejudice from our society.
    synonyms: expel, dispel 
    9. fabricate (verb) to make, manufacture; to make up, invent
    Threads from the cocoons of caterpillars called silkworms are used to fabricate silk. 
    synonyms: put together, devise, contrive, concoct
    antonyms: take apart, undo, destroy, demolish 
    10. irate (adjective) angry
    Long delays caused by bad weather are likely to make even the most unflappable traveler irate.
    synonyms: incensed, infuriated, enraged, livid
    antonyms: calm, composed, cool, unruffled 
    Unit Three Set Two
    1. marauder (noun) a raider, plunderer
    Edgar Allan Poe's story "The Gold Bug" concerns treasure buried by the marauder Captain Kidd.
    synonyms: looter, pirate, freebooter
    2. obesity (noun) excessive fatness
    Sooner or later, obesity leads to all sorts of health problems.
    synonyms: serious overweight, extreme corpulence
    antonyms: emaciation, gauntness, scrawniness
    3. pauper (noun) an extremely poor person
    During the Great Depression, many people were reduced to leading the desperate lives of paupers.
    synonyms: destitute person
    antonyms: millionaire, tycoon
    4. pilfer (verb) to steal in small quantities
    An employee who pilfers from the petty cash box will get caught sooner or later.
    synonyms: filch, rob, swipe, purloin
    5. rift (noun) a split, break, breach
    Failure to repay a loan can be the cause of an angry rift between longtime friends.
    synonyms: crack, fissure, gap, cleft
    antonyms: reconciliation
    6. semblance (noun) a likeness; an outward appearance; an apparition
    Despite a strange case of stage fright, I tried to maintain a semblance of calm as I sang my solo. 
    synonyms: appearance, air, aura, veneer, façade
    antonyms: dissimilarity, contrast, total lack
    7. surmount (verb) to overcome, rise above 
    Wilma Rudolph surmounted childhood illness and physical disabilities to win three Olympic gold medals.
    synonyms: conquer, triumph over
    antonyms: be vanquished, be defeated, succumb to
    8. terminate (verb) to bring to an end
    If you fail to perform your job satisfactorily, your boss may terminate your employment.
    synonyms: conclude, finish, discontinue
    antonyms: begin, commence, initiate
    9. trite (adjective) commonplace; overused, stale
    When you write an esay or a story, be especially careful to avoid using trite expressions.
    synonyms: banal, hackneyed, corny
    antonyms: original, novel, fresh, innovative
    10. usurp (verb) to seize and hold a position by force or without right
    The general who led the coup usurped the office of the duly elected president.
    synonyms: seize illegally, commandeer, supplant 
    Unit Four Set One
    1. abscond (verb) to run off and hide
    The thieves who absconded with several of the museum's most valuable paintings have never been found.
    synonyms: bolt, make off, skip town
    2. access (noun) approach or admittance to places, persons, things; an increase
    Access to information on a seemingly unlimited number of topics is available over the internet.
    synonyms: entry, admittance, entrée
    antonyms: total exclusion
    3. anarchy (noun) lack of government and law; confusion
    In the final days of a war, civilians may find themselves living in anarchy.
    synonyms: chaos, disorder, turmoil, pandemonium
    antonyms: law and order, peace and quiet 
    4. arduous (adjective) hard to do, requiring much effort
    No matter hopw carefully you plan for it, moving to a new home is an ardous chore.
    synonyms: hard, difficult, laborious, fatiguing
    antonyms: easy, simple, effortless
    5. auspicious (adjective) favorable; fortunate
    My parents describe the day that they first met as a most auspicious occasion.
    synonyms: promising, encouraging, propitious
    antonyms: ill-omened, ominous, sinister
    6. biased (adjective) favoring one side unduly; prejudiced
    Athletes in certain sports may complain that judges are biased toward particular competitors.
    synonyms: unfair, partial, bigoted
    antonyms: fair, impartial, unprejudiced, just
    7. daunt (verb) to overcome with fear, intimidate; to dishearten, discourage
    Despite all its inherent dangers, space flight did not daunt the Mercury program astronauts.
    synonyms: dismay, cow
    antonyms: encourage, embolden, reassure
    8. disentangle (verb) to free from tangles or complications
    Rescuers worked for hours to disentangle a whale from the fishing new wrapped around its jaws.
    synonyms: unravel, unwind, unscramble, unsnarl
    antonyms: tangle up, ensnarl, snag 
    9. fated (adjective) determined in advance by destiny or fortune
    The tragic outcome of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet is fated from the play's very first scene. 
    synonyms: destined, preordained, doomed
    antonyms: accidental, fortuitous, chance, random 
    10. hoodwink (verb) to mislead by a trick, deceive
    Many sweepstakes offers hoodwink people into thinking they have already won big prizes.
    synonyms: dupe, put one over on
    antonyms: undeceive, disabuse, clue in
     Unit Four Set Two
    1. inanimate (adjective) not having life; without energy or spirit
    Although fossils are inanimate, they hold many clues to life on Earth millions of years ago.
    synonyms: lifeless, dead, inert, spiritless
    antonyms: living, alive, energetic, lively, sprightly
    2. incinerate (verb) to burn to ashes
    Because of environmental concerns, many cities and towns no longer incinerate their garbage.
    synonyms: burn up, cremate, reduce to ashes
    3. intrepid (adjective) brave, fearless, unshakable
    Intrepid Polynesians sailors in outrigger canoes were the first humans to reach the Hawaiian islands.
    synonyms: valiant, courageous, audacious, daring
    antonyms: timid, cowardly, craven, pusillanimous
    4. larceny (noun) theft
    Someone who steals property that is worth thousands of dollars commits grand larceny.
    synonyms: stealing, robbery, burglary
    5. pliant (adjective) bending easily; easily influenced
    The pliant branches of the sapling sagged but did not break under the weight of the heavy snow.
    synonyms: supple, flexible, elastic, plastic
    antonyms: rigid, stiff, inflexible, set in stone 
    6. pompous (adjective) overly self-important in speech and manner; excessively stately or ceremonious
    Political cartoonists like nothing better than to mock pompous public officials.
    synonyms: pretentious, highfalutin, bombastic
    antonyms: unpretentious, unaffected, plain
    7. precipice (noun) a very steep cliff; the brink or edge of disaster
    During the Cuban Missile Crisis, the world hovered on the precipice of nuclear war.
    synonyms: cliff, crag, bluff, promontory, ledge
    antonyms: abyss, chasm, gorge
    8. rectify (verb) to make right, correct
    The senators debated a series of measures designed to rectify the nation's trade imbalance.
    synonyms: remedy, set right
    antonyms: mess up, botch, bungle 
    9. reprieve (noun) a temporary relief or delay
    A vacation is a kind of reprieve from the cares and responsibilities of everyday life.
    synonyms: stay, respite 
    10. revile (verb) to attack with words, call bad names
    The enraged King Lear reviled the daughters who have cast him out into a fierce storm.
    synonyms: inveigh against, malign, vilify, denounce
    antonyms: praise, acclaim, revere, idolize 
    Unit Five Set One
    1. accomplice (noun) a person who takes part in a crime
    The driver of the getaway car was arrested and tried as an accomplice in the daring bank robbery.
    synonyms: partner in crime, confederate
    2. annihilate (verb) to destroy completely
    Throughout history, nations that are bitter enemies have sought to annihilate each other.
    synonyms: obliterate, decimate, demolish
    antonyms: foster, promote, encourage, nurture 
    3. arbitrary (adjective) unreasonable; based on one's wishes or whims without regard for reason or fairness
    A judge may be criticized for rulings that appear to be arbitrary and without legal precedent.
    synonyms: capricious, high-handed, autocratic
    antonyms: reasoned, rational, objective, equitable 
    4. brazen (adjective) shameless, impudent; made of brass
    Behavior considered brazen in one era may be deemed perfectly acceptable in another.
    synonyms: saucy, bold
    antonyms: deferential, respectful, self-effacing
    5. catalyst (noun) a substance that causes or hastens a chemical reaction; any agent that causes change
    Enzymes are catalysts that aid in the digestion of food.
    synonyms: stimulus, spur, instigator
    6. exodus (noun) a large-scale departure or flight
    The exodus of African Americans to the indistrialized northern states is known as the Great Migration.
    synonyms: emigration, escape, hegira
    antonyms: immigration, influx, arrival, entrance
    7. facilitate (verb) to make easier; to assist
    The Federal Reserve Board may lower interest rates in order to facilitate economic growth.
    synonyms: ease, smooth the way, simplify
    antonyms: hamper, hinder, obstruct, impede
    8. incorrigible (adjective) not able to be corrected; beyond control
    Criminals deemed incorrigible can expect to receive maximum sentences for their offenses against society.
    synonyms: unruly, intractable, incurable, inveterate
    antonyms: tractable, docile, curable, reparable 
    9. latent (adjective) hidden, present but not realized
     Don't you think it's sad that many people use only a small fraction of their latent abilities? 
    synonyms: dormant, inactive, undeveloped
    antonyms: exposed,l manifest, evident
    10. militant (adjective) given to fighting; active and aggressive in support of a cause
    In the struggle for civil rights, Martin Luther King, Jr., advocated peaceful rather than militant protest.
    synonyms: truculent
    antonyms: unassertive, peaceable, passive
    Unit Five Set Two
    1. morose (adjective) having a gloomy or sullen manner; not friendly or sociable
    Heathcliff is the morose and vengeful protagonist in Emily Bronte's novel Wuthering Heights.
    synonyms: morbid, doleful
    antonyms: cheerful, blithe, jaunty, buoyant
    2. opaque (adjective) not letting light through; not clear or lucid; dense, stupid
    I have read that book twice, but I still find the author's meaning completely opaque.
    synonyms: hazy, cloudy, foggy, murky, dull, obtuse
    antonyms: transparent, clear, bright, perceptive  
    3. paramount (adjective) chief in importance, above all others
    Voters should insist that candidates for high office address the paramount issues facing our society.
    synonyms: supreme, foremost, primary, dominant
    antonyms: secondary, subordinate, ancillary
    4. prattle (verb) to talk in an aimless, foolish, or simple way; to babble
    Some people can prattle away on the phone for hours on end.
    synonyms: chatter
    5. rebut (verb) to offer arguments or evidence that contradicts an assertion; to refute
    It is a defense lawyer's job to rebut the charges made by the prosecutor.
    synonyms: disprove, confute, shoot holes in
    antonyms: confirm, corroborate, substantiate
    6. reprimand (verb) to scold; find fault with
    A judge may need to reprimand a lawyer for repeatedly harassing a witness.
    synonyms: reprove, reproach
    antonyms: praise, pat on the back
    7. servitude (noun) slavery, forced labor
    In Les Miserables, Jean Valjean is sentenced to many years of servitude for stealing a loaf of bread.
    synonyms: captivity, bondage, thralldom
    antonyms: freedom, liberty
    8. slapdash (adjective) careless and hasty
    Landlords who routinely make slapdash repairs should be considered negligent.
    synonyms: cursory, perfunctory, sloppy, slipshod
    antonyms: painstaking, meticulous, thorough, in-depth  
    9. stagnant (adjective) not running or flowing; foul from standing still; inactive, sluggish, dull
    It is dangerous for hikers to drink water from any source that appears to be stagnant.
    synonyms: still, motionless, inert, fetid
    antonyms: flowing, running, fresh, sweet
    10. succumb (verb) to give way to superior force, yield
    Most dieters occasionally succumb to the lure of a high-calorie dessert
    synonyms: submit, die, expire
    antonyms: overcome, master, conquer
    Unit Six Set One
    1. atone (verb) to make up for
    At one time or another, everyone has done something he or she needs to atone for.
    synonyms: expiate, make amends for
    2. bondage (noun) slavery; any state of being bound or held down
    Many people escaped the cruel bondage of slavery with the help of the Underground Railroad.
    synonyms: servitude, captivity, subjection, dependence
    antonyms: freedom, liberty, independence
    3. credible (adjective) believable
    Do you have a credible explanation for not completing your assignment on time?
    synonyms: plausible, acceptable, likely
    antonyms: unbelievable, implausible, improbable
    4. defray (verb) to pay for
    Corporate sponsors helped to defray the cost of the charity's annual telethon.
    synonyms: settle, bear the cost, foot the bill
    5. diligent (adjective) hardworking, industrious, not lazy 
    Diligent employees are likely to be well rewarded for their dedication and hard work.
    synonyms: assiduous, sedulous
    antonyms: lazy, indolent, cursory, perfunctory
    6. doleful (adjective) sad; dreary
    One look at the players' doleful faces told me that the team had lost the championship game.
    synonyms: sorrowful, mournful, melancholy, dolorous
    antonyms: cheerful, blithe, jaunty, buoyant
    7. ghastly (adjective) frightful, horrible; deathly pale
    Some people are almost afraid to go to sleep because they suffer from ghastly recurring nightmares.
    synonyms: dreadful, appaling, gruesome, grisly
    antonyms: pleasant, agreeable, attractive, delightful
    8. hamper (verb) to hold back
    Poor grades will hamper you in your effort to get a college education.
    synonyms: hinder, obstruct, impede, inhibit
    antonyms: facilitate, ease, smooth the way
    9. hew (verb) to shape or cut down with an ax; to hold to
    Even in a crisis, we must hew to this nation's principles of liberty, equality, and justice.
    synonyms: chop, hack, fell, adhere, conform
    10. impoverished (adjective) poor; in a state of poverty; depleted
    After World War II, impoverished European countriesd received U.S. aid under the Marshall Plan.
    synonyms: poverty-stricken, destitute, indigent
    antonyms: rich, wealthy, affluent, prosperous 
     Unit Six Set Two
    1. incessant (adjective) never stopping; going on all the time
    The loud and incessant chatter of the people at the next table made it hard for us to hear each other.
    synonyms: ceaseless, constant, uninterrupted
    antonyms: occasional, sporadic, intermittent
    2. intricate (adjective) complicated; difficult to understand
    Our teacher took us through the intricate solution to the equation step by step.
    synonyms: complex, convoluted
    antonyms: simple, uninvolved, uncomplicated
    3. lucid (adjective) easy to understand, clear; rational, sane
    The ability to speak in a lucid and persuasive fashion is a great asset for a politician.
    synonyms: limpid, intelligible
    antonyms: murky, muddy, obscure, unintelligible
    4. posthumous (adjective) occurring or published after death
    Many artists and writers have been ignored during their lifetimes only to achieve posthumous fame.
    synonyms: postmortem
    antonyms: prenatal 
    5. prim (adjective) overly neat, precise, proper, or formal; prudish
    How is it that such a prim and tidy person and such a messy one can be such good friends?
    synonyms: fussy, fastidious, squeamish
    antonyms: dowdy, frumpy, sloppy, untidy, loose, lax
    6. sardonic (adjective) grimly or scornfully mocking, bitterly sarcastic
    Great satirists save their most sardonic wit for the greedy, the corrupt, and the hypocritical.
    synonyms: caustic, mordant, acerbic, wry
    antonyms: bland, mild, saccharine, good-natured
    7. superfluous (adjective) exceeding what is sufficient or required, excess
    Neat and well-organized people know how to eliminate all superfluous clutter.
    synonyms: surplus, supererogatory
    antonyms: necessary, essential, vital, indispensable
    8. supplant (verb) to take the place or, supersede
    Computers rapidly supplanted typewriters in the workplace, just as photocopiers replaced carbon paper.
    synonyms: replace, displace, oust
    9. taunt (verb) to jeer at, mock
    It is not at all unusual for brothers and sisters to tease and taunt one another good-naturedly.
    synonyms: ridicule, deride
    antonyms: cheer, applaud, acclaim
    10. tenacious (adjective) holding fast; holding together firmly; persistent
    Athletes must be tenacious in the pursuit of excellence if they hope to become Olympic champions.
    synonyms: obstinate, stubborn, dogged
    antonyms: yielding, weak, gentle, lax, slack
    Unit Seven Set One
    1. adieu (noun) a farewell
    When the hour grew late, the last of the dinner guests made their adieu to their gracious hosts.
    synonyms: good-bye
    antonyms: greeting
    2. advent (noun) an arrival; a coming into place or view
    The advent of spring is particularly welcome after a long, harsh winter.
    synonyms: approach
    antonyms: departure, going away, exodus
    3. apex (noun) the highest point, tip
    If you want to reach the apex of the Washington Monument, you can take the stairs or the elevator.
    synonyms: peak, summit, acme, crowning point
    antonyms: bottom, nadir
    4. assimilate (verb) to absorb fully or make one's own; to adopt as one's own; to adapt fully
    A well-read person assimilates knowledge of a wide range of subjects.
    synonyms: digest, incorporate, blend in
    5. bogus (adjective) false, counterfeit
    Cashiers receive special training so that they will be able to identify bogus currency.
    synonyms: phony, fake, spurious
    antonyms: genuine, authentic
    6. exorbitant (adjective) unreasonably high; excessive
    Management rejected the union's demands for higher wages and better benefits as exorbitant.
    synonyms: extreme, inordinate, overpriced
    antonyms: inexpensive, affordable, reasonable
    7. interim (adjective) temporary, coming between two points in time
    The team played well under an interim coach for the final three months of the season.
    synonyms:provisional, stopgap
    8. inundate (verb) to flood, overflow; to overwhelm by numbers or size
    Torrential rains and high tides inundated the streets of the picturesque seaside community.
    synonyms: submerge, deluge, swamp
    9. malign (verb) to speak evil of, slander
    In every office, there are gossips who are only too willing to malign their coworkers.
    synonyms: defame, vilify, badmouth
    antonyms: praise, commend
    10. meander (verb) to wander about, wind about
    When I travel, I like to meander through unfamiliar towns and cities.
    synonyms: ramble, roam, zigzag, twist
    Unit Seven Set Two
    1. metropolis (noun) a large city; the chief city of an area
    Archaeologists have learned much about the Mayans from the ruins of the metropolis Palenque.
    synonyms: large urban center
    antonyms: hamlet, village
    2. momentous (adjective) very important
    A momentous decision by the Supreme Court in 1954 declared public school segregation unconstitutional.
    synonyms: consequential, weighty, portentous
    antonyms: inconsequential, trivial, slight, unimportant
    3. obstreperous (adjective) noisy; unruly, disorderly
    Our teacher will not tolerate obstreperous behavior in the classroom.
    synonyms: wild, rowdy, uncontrolled, riotous
    antonyms: quiet, well-behaved, docile
    4. pensive (adjective) thoughtful; melancholy
     We admired the skill with which the artist captured the child's pensive expression.
    synonyms: dreamy, reflective, contemplative, wistful
    5. perilous (adjective) dangerous
    Episodes of old-time movie serials usually ended with the hero or heroine in perilous circumstances.
    synonyms: risky, chancy, hazardous, unsafe
    antonyms: safe, secure, harmless
    6. shoddy (adjective) of poor quality; characterized by inferior workmanship
    That designer watch I bought from a street vendor turned out to be a shoddy knockoff.
    synonyms: flimsy, cheap, tacky, imitative
    antonyms: well-made, solid, durable, superior
    7. sprightly (adjective) lively, full of life; spicy, flavorful
    Though Grandmother is well into her eighties, she is still as sprightly as a teenager.
    synonyms: frisky, peppy, spirited, animated, buoyant
    antonyms: sullen, spiritless, dull, morose, sluggish
    8. surly (adjective) angry and bad-tempered; rude
    Passengers stranded in an airport because their flight is canceled may become quite surly
    synonyms: gruff, sullen, cranky, grouchy, hostile
    antonyms: polite, gracious, civil, friendly, genial
    9. tirade (noun) a long, angry speech, usually very critical
    The dictator's televised tirade against his opponents lasted for four hours.
    synonyms: harangue, diatribe, tongue-lashing
    10. vagrant (noun) an idle wanderer, tramp
    During the Great Depression, many people lost everything and were forced to live as vagrants.
    synonyms: drifter, vagabond, hobo, nomad
    antonyms: stay-at-home, homebody, resident
    Unit Eight Set One
    1. assurance (noun) a pledge; freedom from doubt, self-confidence
    The airport was built with the assurance that all the people displaced by its construction would be fairly compensated.
    synonyms: promise, sureness, poise, self-possession
    antonyms: uncertainty, doubt, insecurity
    2. asylum (noun) an institution for the care of children, elderly people, etc.; a place of safety
    Some refuges are political fugitives who have fled their homeland to seek asylum in another country.
    synonyms: sanatorium, sanctuary, refuge
    3. console (verb) to comfort
    A neighbor tried to console the sobbing child whose cat had wandered away.
    synonyms: soothe, solace, alleviate
    antonyms: distress, aggravate, bother, vex, torment
    4. dilate (verb) to make larger or wider; to expand upon
    The opthalmologist said she would dilate the pupil before examining the injured eye.
    synonyms: enlarge, expand, swell, prolong
    5. dross (noun) refuse, waste products
    The dross from the manufacturing process turned out to be highly toxic.
    synonyms: rubbish, trash, detritus, dregs, scum
    6. dwindle (verb) to lessen, diminish
    During the coldest weeks of winter, the pile of firewood slowly dwindled until there were no logs left.
    synonyms: decrease, shrink, fade, peter out
    antonyms: increase, enlarge, swell, proliferate
    7. flippant (adjective) lacking in seriousness; disrespectful, saucy
    Parents and other adults are often upset by a teenager's flippant responses.
    synonyms: frivolous, impudent, impertinent, insolent
    antonyms: serious, respectful, deferential, obsequious
    8. immunity (noun) resistance to disease; freedom from some charge or obligation
    Most babies are vaccinated so that they develop an immunity to measles.
    synonyms: exemption, impunity
    antonyms: vulnerability, susceptibility, exposure
    9. institute (noun) an organization for the promotion of learning
    After graduating from high school, I plan to attend an accredited institute of technology.
    synonyms: academy
    10. liability (noun) a debt; something disadvantageous
    A limited attention span is his biggest liability as a student.
    synonyms: handicap, difficulty, impediment, drawback
    antonyms: advantage, asset
    Unit Eight Set Two
    1. preposterous (adjective) ridiculous, senseless
    The theory that Stonehenge was constructed by alien life-forms is utterly preposterous.
    synonyms: nonsensical, absurd, incredible
    antonyms: sensible, reasonable, realistic, plausible
    2. pugnacious (adjective) quarrelsome, fond of fighting
    The fox terrier is  a particularly pugnacious breed of dog known for its aggressive behavior.
    synonyms: argumentative, combatitive, belligerent
    antonyms: peace-loving, friendly, amicable, congenial
    3. rabid (adjective) furious, violently intense, unreasonably extreme; mad; infected with rabies
    Police arrived in force to quell the riot set off by rabid soccer fans.
    synonyms: fanatical, zealous, raving, infuriated, berserk
    antonyms: moderate, restrained, blase, indifferent
    4. realm (noun) a kingdom; a region or field of study
    While astronomy falls within the realm of science, astrology does not.
    synonyms: domain, duchy, baliwick, jurisdiction
    5. rejuvanate (verb) to make young again; to make like new
    A few minutes of conversation with my best friend helped to rejuvenate my flagging spirits.
    synonyms: revitalize, renew
    antonyms: wear out, exhaust, enervate, debilatate
    6. remunerate (verb) to reward, pay, reimburse
    The couple promised to remunerate the artist handsomely for a portrait of their child.
    synonyms: compensate, satisfy, profit, benefit
    7. sparse (adjective) meager, scant; scattered
    Unlike its neighboring metropolis, the area has quite a sparse population.
    synonyms: thin, scanty, few and far between
    antonyms: plentiful, abundant, profuse, teeming
    8. sterling (adjective) genuine, excellent; made of silver of standard fineness 
    The reviewer noted the young actor's sterling performance in A Midsummer Night's Dream.
    synonyms: first-rate, outstanding, worthy, pure
    antonyms: mediocre, shoddy, second-rate, sham
    9. venture (noun) a risky or daring undertaking; (verb) to expose to danger; to dare
    An overseas voyage was a daunting venture during the age of exploration. (noun)
    It takes courage to venture out into unknown territory. (verb)
    synonyms: (noun) gamble; (verb) try, chance, undertake
    antonyms: (verb) withdraw, retre, shrink from, shy away
    10. warp (verb) to twist out of shape (noun) an abnormality
    The carpenter explained that humidity caused the kitchen door to warp. (verb)
    Criminal behavior often shows a striking lack of judgment or a warp in thinking. (noun)
    synonyms: (verb) bend, distort, misshape; (noun) irregularity
    antonyms: (verb) straighten, unbend, rectify
    Unit Nine Set One
    1. auxillary (adjective) giving assistance or support; (noun) a helper, aid
    If the main motor fails, the instructions say to turn on the auxillary motor. (adjective)
    Someone second in command is an auxillary to the person in charge. (noun)
    synonyms: (adjective) additional, back-up; (noun) reserve, accessory
    antonyms: (adjective) main, primary, principal
    2. candid (adjective) frank, sincere; impartial. unposed
    It is safe to be candid about our faults with friends and loved ones.
    synonyms: forthright, plainspoken, unbiased
    antonyms: insincere, evasive, misleading, artful
    3. cubicle (noun) a small room or compartment
    The tiniest compartment is usually assigned to the newest employee.
    synonyms: enclosure, hole-in-the-wall
    antonyms: vast hall. auditorium
    4. drudgery (noun) work that is hard and tiresome
    Trade unions lobby to relieve the endless drudgery of factory workers.
    synonyms: toil, labor, grind
    antonyms: play, frolic, amusement, recreation, fun
    5. envoy (noun) a representative or messenger (as of a government)
    On more than one occasion, a former President has been asked to act as a special envoy to the United Nations.
    synonyms: agent, ambassador, emissary, minister
    6. escalate (verb) to elevate; to increase in intensity
    A small dispute can escalate into a major conflict unless the opposing parties sit down and talk.
    synonyms: climb, raise, ascend, mount
    antonyms: decrease, lessen, descend, defuse
    7. expedient (noun) a means to an end; (adjective) advantageous, useful
    As an expedient, we chose to use a rock as a makeshift hammer. (noun)
    An opportunist is someone who is always ready to do whatever is most expedient. (adjective)
    synonyms: (noun) contrivance, device; (adjective) serviceable
    antonyms: (adjective) inconvient, untimely, disadvantageous
    8. feign (verb) to pretend
    Children sometimes feign illness to avoid going to school.
    synonyms: fake, sham, affect, simulate
    9. flair (noun) a natural talent, quality, or skill; a distinctive style
     An opera singer needs a flair for the dramatic as well as a good voice.
    synonyms: aptitude, bent, knack, gift, style, panache
    antonyms: inability, incapacity
    10. grievous (adjective) causing sorrow or pain; serious
     Reporters should take careful notes when interviewing to avoid making grievous errors.
    synonyms: painful, heartrending, onerous, flagrant
    antonyms: joyful, uplifting, cheery, upbeat, comforting
    Unit Nine Set Two
    1. heterogeneous (adjective) composed of different kinds, diverse
    Most college admissions officers actively seek a student body that is both talented and heterogeneous .
    synonyms: miscellananeous, mixed, variegated
    antonyms: uniform, homogeneous, of a piece
    2. horde (noun) a vast number (as of people); a throng
    When the doors opened, a horde of shoppers headed towards the sales racks.
    synonyms: crowd, mass, multitude, host, swarm
    antonyms: few, handful
    3. impel (verb) to force, drive forward
    Hunger often impels people to leave their homes in search of food.
    synonyms: urge, push, spur, propel, incite
    antonyms: discourage, check, restrain, curb
    4. incredulous (adjective) disbelieving, skeptical
    When the testimony of a witness contradicts the evidence, you can expect incredulous stares from the jury.
    synonyms: dubious, mistrustful, doubting
    antonyms: believing, trustful, gullible
    5. inscribe (verb) to write or engrave; to enter a name on a list
    The young man asked the jeweler to inscribe the locket with his fiancee's name.
    synonyms: imprint, enroll, enlist
    antonyms: erase, rub out, delete, efface, obliterate
    6. monologue (noun) a speech by one actior; a long talk by one person
    By means of a monologue, a playwright shares a character's private thoughts with the audience.
    synonyms: soliloquy, recitation
    antonyms: dialogue, conversation, colloquy
    7. prognosis (noun) a forecast of the probable course and outcome of a disease or situation
    Doctors are particularly happy to deliver a prognosis of a speedy recovery.
    synonyms: (noun) contrivance, device; (adjective) serviceable
    antonyms: (adjective) inconvient, untimely, disadvantageous
    8. rasping (adjective) with a harsh, grating sound; (noun) a harsh sound
    Chronic bronchitis can lead to a rasping cough that is difficult to cure. (adjective)
    The rasping of metal against metal sets my teeth on edge. (noun)
     synonyms: (adjective) scratchy, scraping, abrasive, gravelly
    antonyms: (adjective) sonorous, smooth, satiny, silky, mellow
    9. repugnant (adjective) offensive, disagreeable, distasteful
    Despite their repugnant lack of cleanliness, pigs are endearing to many people.
    synonyms: hateful, odious, revolting, repulsive
    antonyms: pleasing, attractive, tempting, wholesome
     10. scuttle (verb) to sink a ship by cutting holes in it; to get rid of something in a decisive way; to run hastily, scurry; (noun) a pail
    Pirates would not wish to scuttle a captured galleon before looting its cargo. (verb)
    Years ago, it was possible to buy a scuttle of coal at the corner grocery store.
    synonyms: (verb) abandon, discard, scrap, ditch, dump
    antonyms: (verb) keep afloat, salvage, rescue, preserve
    Unit Ten Set One
    1. adept (adjective) thoroughly skilled; (noun) an expert
    Not only is the soloist an accomplished singer, but he is also adept at playing the saxophone. (adjective)
    An adept at chess, she hopes to compete in tournaments against top-rated players. (noun)
    synonyms: (adjective) masterful, accomplished, proficient
    antonyms: (adjective) clumsy, unskilled, maladroit; (noun) novice
    2. aspire (verb) to have ambitious hopes or plans, strive toward a higher goal, desire earnestly; to ascend
    An early fascination with ants led the young naturalist to aspire to a career as an entomologist.
    synonyms: seek, yearn, aim for, soar
    3. bleak (adjective) abare, dreary, dismal
    Urban renewal can turn a run-down city with bleak economic prospects into a flourishing metropolis.
    synonyms: grim, cheerless, gloomy, desolate, barren
    antonyms: rosy, cheerful, sunny, promising, encouraging
    4. chide (verb) to blame; scold
    The teacher chided the student for truancy and tardiness.
    synonyms: upbraid, reprimand, rebuke, chastise
    antonyms: approve, praise, compliment, pat on the back
    5. despicable (adjective) worthy of scorn, contemptible
    Whatever the provocation, there is no justification for such despicable behavior.
    synonyms: low, vile, cheap, sordid, detestable
    antonyms: praiseworthy, comendable, meritorious
    6. diminutive (adjective) small, smaller than most others of the same type
    The diminutive lapdog was so small that it actually fit in its owner's purse.
    synonyms: undersized, miniature, tiny, compact
    antonyms: oversized, gigantic, huge, enormous
    7. emancipate (verb) to free from slavery; to release or liberate
    Scientific knowledge can liberate humanity from blind superstition.
    synonyms: set loose, unchain, unshackle, unfetter
    antonyms: enslave, snare, chain, shackle
    8. erroneous (adjective) incorrect, containing mistakes
    An erroneous first impression is not easily corrected.
    synonyms: mistaken, fallacious, all wrong
    antonyms: accurate, correct, exact, unerring
    9. exploit (verb) to make use of, develop; to make improper use of for personal profit; (noun) a feat, deed
    A good debater knows how to exploit weaknesses in an opponent's argument. (verb)
    The exploits of Robin Hood and his Merry Men are so well known that they have become a part of Western culture. (noun)
    synonyms: (verb) utilize, turn to advantage, misuse
    10. extemporaneous (adjective) made or delivered on the spur of the moment
    The stand-up comedian's outrageous act included about twenty minutes of completely extemporaneous banter.
    synonyms: spontaneous, impromptu, off-the-cuff
    antonyms: planned, rehearsed, prepared
    Unit Ten Set Two
    1. impair (verb) to make imperfect, damage, harm
    I am fortunate that the scratch on my eye will not permanently impair my vision.
    synonyms: injure, mar, disable, cripple, enervate
    antonyms: improve, strengthen, promote, advance
    2. invincible (adjective) not able to be defeated, unbeatable
    Napolean I, emporer of France, was invincible until he launched a disasterous invasion of Russia.
    synonyms: unconquerable, indomitable, insuperable
    antonyms: vulnerable, conquerable, surmountable
    3. languid (adjective) drooping; without energy, sluggish
    A big lunch makes me feel languid for the rest of the day.
    synonyms: lazy, sluggih, listless, slack, lethargic
    antonyms: lively, energetic, vigorous, enlivening
    The once verdant expanse of the soccer field has become a rectangle of muck and mire. (noun)
    Congress will never ratify that bill mired in controversy. (verb)
    synonyms: (noun) marsh, swamp, bog, slough
    5. obtrusive (adjective) forward; undesirably prominent; thrust out
    I don't blame you for being put off by his obtrusive attempt to dominate the conversation.
    synonyms: brash, impudent, conspicuous, protruding
    antonyms: meek, reserved, deferential, recessed
    6. preamble (noun) an introduction to a speech or piece of writing
    The preamble to the Constitution describes the purpose of our national government.
    synonyms: opening, preface, prologue, preliminary
    antonyms: conclusion, ending, closing, epilogue
    7. render (verb) to cause to become; to perform; to deliver officially; to process, extract
    The freelance writer presented the managing editor with a bill for services rendered.
    synonyms: present, furnish, submit, make, effect
    8. rugged (adjective) rough, irregular; severe, stern; strong, stormy
    Settlers had a rough time crossing the rugged Appalachian Mountains.
    synonyms: rocky, craggy, blunt, harsh, hardy, tough
    antonyms: smooth, flat, soft, mild, tender, delicate
    9. skeptical (adjective) inclined to doubt; slow to accept something as true
    I am skeptical of promises made by politicians when they are running for office.
    synonyms: dubious, suspicious, incredulous
    antonyms: believing, credulous, gullible, ingenuous
    10. slipshod (adjective) untidy in dress, personal habit, etc.; careless, sloppy
    The commission attributed the unfortunate collapse of the apartment building to its slipshod construction.
    synonyms: messy, untidy, slovenly, slapdash, cursory
    antonyms: tidy, neat, orderly, careful, painstaking